BioHawk® 8-Channel Collector/Bioidentifier
BioHawk® is a portable 8-channel bioassay system integrated with an aerosol collector. It is suitable for the high-sensitivity monitoring of biological agents, toxins, explosives, and chemical contaminants. Assay results are typically available in 10 to 20 minutes. BioHawk can be programmed to monitor surrounding air for aerosol threats with the built-in air sampler, and to periodically transfer a wet concentrate from the air sampler to the bioidentifier portion.
Bioassays are performed within a small disposable credit card-sized plastic assay coupon which can be used for up to10 assay procedures before being discarded. Since a single assay coupon can handle up to eight different analytes simultaneously, up to 80 individual assays can be performed before discarding or removing the coupon. Assay results are transmitted a through the touch panel LCD display, an audible alarm, a pulsating light, or by Bluetooth wireless or RS-232 link to personnel at a remote location. System operation may also be remotely controlled in real time.
Functions such as air sampling and bioidentification are performed using multi-step recipes developed by Research International and stored in the system's computer memory. Users need only the most fundamental level of training since the internal processes and steps are preset through the built-in computerized recipes. For more advanced users, Windows-based software allows the user to develop their own customized sample collection and detection protocols.
- Man portable. Measures:35.6 cm W x 36.5 cm H x 17.1 cm D. Weighs less than 30 pounds.
- Air sampler uses multi-stage, wetted-wall cyclone principle for enhanced particulate collection.
- Air collection at 325 LPM, nominal.
- Uses disposable wet assay coupon. Reusable up to 10 times.Eight simultaneous assays.
- Fast assays: 10 - 15 minutes typical.
- Auto-flush protocols for decontamination.
- Analyte range: toxins, bacteria, spores, fungi, multi-cellular pathogens.
- Sensitivity: analyte dependent, 1 to 10 ppb typical for toxins, 100 to 100,000 CFU/ml for bacteria.
- Operator interface: Day / night touch screen LCD.
- Designed to MILSPEC 810F.
- Flash memory retains raw / processed data for over 6,000 assays
- Homeland security
- Indoor air quality
- BioHawk Data Sheet
- Frequently Asked Questions (opens in new window)
- MSDS for BioHawk Buffer Solution (PN 7000-156-570-01)
- Power Measurements and Battery Life Estimates
- Candidate Disinfectants for Research International Products
- Bluetooth Biolink™ Wireless Units provide plug-and-play wireless communication between any Research International product and a remote PC or laptop.
- Flash animation of how BioHawk coupon works (opens new window).
Sandwich Assays and Agents Detected with BioHawk Bioassay System
|Target Agent||Liquid Media||Approx. Detection Limit||References|
|TNT||Water||440 ng/ml||5, 9, 11|
|Ricin||Water||<0.5 ng/ml||10, 15, 18, 19|
|Staphylococcal enterotoxin B||Water||0.1-0.5 ng/ml||12, 15, 16, 18, 20|
|Cholera toxin||Water||0.1-1 ng/ml||16, 20|
|D-dimer||Blood plasma||200 ng/ml||8|
|Protein C||Blood plasma||160 ng/ml||7|
|Bacillus globigii||Water||2.5 x 104CFU/ml||18, 20|
|Bacillus anthracis||Water||30 CFU/ml||Footnote (a)|
|Sterne strain, vegetative cells||Whole blood||100 CFU/ml||18|
|Ames strain, irradiated spores||Water||104-105CFU/ml||16, 18|
|Botulinium toxin||Water||1 – 10 ng/ml||6, Footnote (a)|
|Erwinia herbicola||Water||107CFU/ml||Footnote (a)|
|Yersinia pestisF1 antigen||Water||1-5 ng/ml||15, 13, 18|
|Brucella abortus||Water||7 x 104CFU/ml||18|
|Francisella tularensis||Water||5 x 104CFU/ml||15, 18, 20|
|Escherichia coliO157:H7||Hamburger slurry||100-1000 CFU/g (direct)||2, 3, 4|
|" "||0.08-0.4 CFU/g (6 hour enrichment)||17|
|Raw sewage||1000 CFU/ml||16|
|Salmonella typhimurium||Water||20,000 CFU/ml||14, 15, 16|
|Giardia lamblia||Drinking Water||5 x 104/ml</2>||18|
|RSV||Water||Equiv. to std. ELISA</2p>|
(a) Private communication - G.P. Anderson, Naval Research Laboratory.
(b) Unpublished data - David McCrae & Ann Wilson, Research International.
- K. A. Donaldson, M. F. Kramer and D. V. Lim, "A rapid detection method for Vaccinia virus, the surrogate for smallpox virus," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 20, 322-327 (2004).
- D. R. DeMarco, and D. V. Lim, "Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 10- and 25-gram ground beef samples with an evanescent-wave biosensor with silica and polystyrene waveguides," J. Food Prot, 596-602 (2002).
- D. Lim, "Rapid Biosensor Detection of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens," Microbiological methods Forum News, 18, 13-17 (June 2001).
- D. V. Lim, "Rapid Pathogen Detection in the New Millennium," National Food Processors Association (NFPA) Journal, 13–17 (October 2000).
- B. Bakaltcheva, F. S. Ligler, C. H. Patterson, and L. C. Shriver-Lake, "Multi-Analyte Explosive Detection using a Fiber Optic Sensor," Analytica Chima Acta, 399, 13–20 (1999).
- N. Nath and M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin and M. Huestis, "A Rapid Reusable Fiber Optic Biosensor for Detecting Cocaine Metabolites in Urine," Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 23, 460–467 (1999).
- J. O. Spiker, K. A. Kang, W. N. Drohan, and D. F. Bruley, "Preliminary Study of Biosensor Optimization for the Detection of Protein C,"Oxygen Transport to Tissue XX, Plenum Press, New York, 681-688 (1998).
- B. A. Rowe,et al., "Rapid Detection of D-dimer Using a Fiber Optic Biosensor,"Thromb. Haemost., 79, 94–98 (1998).
- B. L. Donner, et al., "Transition from Laboratory to On-Site Environmental Monitoring of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Using a Portable Fiber Optic Biosensor," ACS Symposium Series, 657 (Immunochemical Technology for Environmental Applications), 198–209 (1997).
- U. Narang, et al., "Fiber Optic-Based Biosensor for Ricin," Biosensor & Bioelectronics, 12, 937–945 (1997).
- L. C. Shriver-Lake, B. L. Donner, and F. S. Ligler, "On-Site Detection of TNT with a Portable Fiber Optic Biosensor," Environmental Science & Technology, 31, 837–841 (1997).
- L. A. Tempelman, et al., "Quantitating Staphylcoccal Enterotoxin B in Diverse Media Using a Portable Fiber Optic Biosensor," Analytical Biochemistry, 233, 50–57 (1996).
- K. Cao, G. P. Anderson, F. S. Ligler J. and Ezzel, "Detection of Yersinia pestis fraction 1 antigen with a fiber optic biosensor," J. Clin. Microbiol. 33, 336-341 (1995).
- N. Nath and M. Eldefrawi, J. Wright, D. Darwin and M. Huestis, "A Rapid Reusable Fiber Optic Biosensor for Detecting Cocaine Metabolites in Urine,"Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 23, 460–467 (1999).
- D. R. DeMarco,et al., Rapid Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef Using a Fiber Optic Biosensor,"Journal of Food Protection, 62, 711–716 (1999).
- D. V. Lim, "Detection of microorganisms and toxins with evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensors," Proc. IEEE 91, 902-907 (2003).
- T. B. Tims and D. V. Lim, "Confirmation of viable E. coli O157:H7 by enrichment and PCR after rapid biosensor detection," Journal of Microbiological Methods, 55, 141-147 (2003).
- G. P. Anderson, C. A. Rowe-Taitt, and F. S. Ligler, "RAPTOR: A Portable, Automated Biosensor," First Conference on Point Detection for Chemical and Biological Defense (October 2000).
- Ellen R. Goldman, Mehran P. Pazirandeh, J. Matthew Mauro, Keeley D. King, Julie C. Frey and George P. Anderson, " Phage-displayed peptides as biosensor reagents," Journal of Molecular Recognition, 13 (6), 382 – 387, 2000.
- G. P. Anderson, K. D. King, K. L. Gaffney, and L. H. Johnson, "Multi-Analyte Interrogation Using the Fiber Optic Biosensor," Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 14, 771–777 (2000).
- R. A. Ogert,et al., "Detection ofClostridium botuliniumToxin A Using a Fiber Optic-Based Biosensor,"Analytical Biochemistry, 205, 306–312 (1992).
Air Sampler Features
The air sampler is a highly effective multi-stage wetted-wall cyclone that continuously processes air at a 325 LPM rate, extracting particulates and transferring them to a liquid phase of 4 to 5 cc volume (see Figure 2). Distilled water is typically the liquid of choice; no additives or surfactants are required for maximum efficiency. This liquid portion may then be periodically transferred in part or in whole to the biodetector, using a built-in peristaltic pump. A dropper bottle filling station is also integrated into the BioHawk so that a portion or all of the sample may be dispensed into the dropper bottle for archiving and/or application of an alternative analysis method. For example, the dropper bottle feature allows the BioHawk to be used as a sample collection and preparation system for lateral flow tickets. Unique and patented features of the air sampler include its abilities to operate unattended for long periods of time and to amplify trace analyte concentrations by maintaining a user-selected sample fluid volume in the device, independent of collection time, air temperature or relative humidity.
This is accomplished by monitoring liquid inventory with a proprietary sensor attached to the cyclone body. When the sample water inventory falls below the set point, the sensor initiates clean water transfer into the cyclone body from an onboard 1 liter water supply. Water inventories may be maintained within a recommended range of about 4 cc to 5 cc with an accuracy of a few tenths of a cubic centimeter.
Figure 2: Air sampler flow schematic.
The instrument's biodetector section consists of a disposable 8-channel fluorometric assay coupon (see Figure 3) suitable for the high-sensitivity detection of biological agents, toxins, explosives, and chemical contaminants. All target-specific reagents needed to perform an assay are contained within the coupon. The only fluid not carried in the coupon is a saline buffer used to wash the system between assays. It is stored within a refillable reservoir in the instrument and a waste water reservoir is also provided. This ensures that no fluids are discharged from the instrument during either air sampling or the bioassay step.
Figure 3: BioHawk bioassay coupon.
Upon coupon insertion into the instrument, an optical bar code on the coupon is automatically interrogated for assay recipe information. Highly reliable computer-controlled peristaltic and syringe pumps are used to move reagents, sample fluids and wash buffer within the coupon, as directed by the assay recipe. Automation of the assay process in this way ensures repeatable behavior from test to test.
Targeted agents are detected by monitoring fluorescently-tagged chemical reporter reactions taking place on optical waveguide surfaces within the coupon (see Figure 4). These reactions typically use antibodies to bind targeted pathogens to the waveguide surfaces, and fluorophore-tagged secondary antibodies to create a fluorescent signal when the waveguides are irradiated with 635 nm solid state laser light. See the RAPTOR Sandwich Assays chart for additional information on waveguide-based biosensing and analytes that can be detected with this type of approach.
Assay data is automatically stored in the system's non-volatile EEPROM with a date and time stamp, and can be downloaded to a remote computer using an RS-232 or wireless link. The BioHawk has the capacity to save up to 6,000 data sets.
Auxiliary Windows-based software allows the user to graphically monitor data recovery while an assay is running. It also provides sophisticated users with the ability to customize the various steps involved in running an assay.
Figure 4: Evanescent wave biodetection process.
Figure 5: BioHawk components (front view illustration).
Figure 5: BioHawk components (back view illustration).
The BioHawk Program runs in a single main window entitled ‘BioHawk’ which contains a menu and Toolbar at the top, and a status panel at the bottom. The Main window (see Figure 7-1) can be minimized or reduced in size without affecting operation or data acquisition. Important messages requiring manual input will continue to be displayed even when the program is minimized.
Figure 7-1: The Main window.
(This product is covered by one or more of the following patents: U.S. Patents No. 6,136,611; 5,430,813; 6,082,185; 6,532,835; 5,061,857; and Japanese Patents No. 3,429,282 and 3,754,440.)
BioHawk General Specifications
|Use Profile:||Indoor/outdoor sample collection, transfer, and assay; storage of 255 assay recipes; user in full MOPP gear either walking or in moving vehicle.|
|Sample Introduction:||4ml liquid or liquefied solid sample inserted into sample port, or automated aerosol sample collection and transfer protocol based on built-in wetted-wall cyclone.|
|Assay method:||Disposable wet assay coupon-reuseable up to 10 times. Eight simultaneous software-based assays. Antibody based. Coupon reseals on removal for archival storage.|
|Fluid Handling:||Fluids manipulated under microprocessor control using peristaltic and syringe pumps; sample may be oscillated to lower assay time; reagent is recovered for reuse up to 10 times.|
|Fluids storage:||Snap on 3-section fluid pack. Clean water: 1 liter; Buffer: 250 ml; Waste: 500ml. Assay confirmation samples may be optionally stored in a detachable 8cc vial for later analysis.|
|Human interface:||Day/night Touchscreen LCD display, usable in MOPP gear.|
|Digital communication:||RS-232 bi-directional serial link|
|Physical size:||35.6 cm W x 36.5 cm H x 17.1 cm D|
|Weight:||21.7 lbs. dry; 26.7 lbs. with battery and fluids (9.8/12.1 kg).|
|Operating/storage:||1 to 66°C and -29 to 66°C. Reagent deterioration can reduce upper limit significantly.|
|Humidity:||10% and above. May be operated in rain.|
|Survivability:||MILSPEC 810F; MTBF of about 30,000 hours is determined by air sampler fan.|
|Data storage:||Flash memory retains raw/processed data for over 6000 assays.|
|Power Consumption:||6.2 W at idle; 17.8W with fan operating and one assay performed every 30 minutes.|
|Power source:||BA‐5590/U primary battery or rechargeable battery UBI‐2590.
Universal lump-in-cord power supply, 82-265 Volt (47-63 Hz).
|Alarm:||Visual LED and 103 dB @0.6m waterproof horn; adjustable. RS-232 data link.|
|Decontamination:||Auto-flush protocols using onboard water, or manual flush with detergent and/or disinfectant. High-performance pull-through fan easily removed if contaminated.|
|Sound level:||60 dB (A).|
|Ancillary equipment:||Heavy-duty hard-shell transport case with wheels.|